An O-ring is a doughnut-shaped object or torus. The opposite sides of an O-ring are squeezed between the walls of the cavity or “gland” into which the O-ring is installed. The resulting zero clearance within the gland provides an effective seal, blocking the flow of liquids or gases through the gland’s internal passage. An O-ring is defined by its dimensions (based on inside [hole] diameter and cross section), durometer (Shore A hardness), and material composition. Illustration 3.1 demonstrates three applications showing the two basic categories of O-rings: STATIC– contained within a non-moving gland as in a face seal, and DYNAMIC– contained within a moving gland as in a piston or rod seal.

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